By Dan Harkey
Where does risks begin in commercial real estate lending business? It begins with your process of hiring highly competent third-party vendors. Your job is to assemble the most qualified real estate support professionals to eliminate costly mistakes and to ensure the best quality closing.
This includes service providers who originate new loans, process, underwrite, appraise, and eventually close the transaction. This sounds like a broad statement since the process also requires your participation in marketing, to procure the transaction. Your competency is displayed throughout the process by understanding the borrower’s wants and needs, the loan programs and requirements, property types and characteristics, underwriting skills, geographic locational differences, government regulations, and then hiring professional service providers to match.
It is your responsibility is to identify a well-qualified, licensed, and insured appraiser who is familiar with the geographic location and property type, and various methods of valuation. Hire someone who follows the requirements of Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice (USPAP). USPAP can be considered to be the quality control standards applicable for analysis and reports for appraisal of real property, personal property, intangible assets and business valuations in the United States and its territories. A state licensed appraiser must adhere to USPAP standards. USPAP provides the body of knowledge and performance standards for the appraisal process as authorized by the US Congress (this was part of FIRREA in the early 1990’s and arose from the Bernard Amendment). As noted above, this legislation contains standards for all types of appraisal services, including real and personal property, business enterprises. It is reviewed annually and revised and updated every two years. The Real Estate Broker/Mortgage Loan Broker must establish that the appraiser is qualified by license and specific certification to accept the assignment and must be sure the appraiser is state licensed for the type of required appraisal. This is a mandate by the Bureau of Real Estate Appraisers in California and their equivalent in all states and required in California pursuant to Business and Professions Code Section 10232.6. In most cases the appraiser must also be approved by or acceptable to the lending source.
The first document you will use is an “order form”, which will document the type of appraisal, by whom and when the appraisal will be paid and “what parties rely on the appraisal”. If you, as a mortgage broker/lender, are acting as an agent on behalf of private investors/lenders who intend to fund the loan, or you intend to sell or assign the loan following funding the loan with our own capital, then the appraiser needs to be informed that the private investors/lenders have a right to rely on the appraisal report.
You must identify all intended users of the appraisal report or you need to specifically direct the appraiser as to whom the report should be addressed. To comply with appraisal standards and requirements, and depending on property type, the appraiser will typically conduct a rent survey and an absorption study and will additionally research various market rates for additional indicators such as capitalization rates and discount rates to establish market conditions applicable to a subject property. In appraising the property, the appraiser typically will research market rents for the property type, research market rent trends in general and analyze historical lease-up or absorption rates for the subject property type. Depending on the type of subject being appraised the appraiser may also need to include personal property value or may find that the appraisal requires a going concern valuation for an operating business wherein there may be additional value elements such as FF&E, good will or intellectual property.
Choosing an appraiser for a federally insured home loan differs. It is important to note that neither mortgage brokers, loan officers nor homeowners may select the appraiser for the property on which they want to lend/borrow such funds. At the current time all such appraiser selections and appraisal orders are handled by Appraisal Management Companies (AMC’s).
“Assumptions and Limiting Conditions” are sometimes thought of as the “legalese” or “boilerplate” of appraisal reports. The “assumptions” relate to the concept of scope of work identified in the appraisal process. The appraiser will lay out in writing assumptions such as the correct legal description, that the zoning is correct for the property use and that the information furnished is true and correct. A “limiting condition” is one that limits the use of the appraisal, primarily by specifying the use and intended users of the appraisal report. That is, who may rely on the contents of the report. However, each assumption or condition must be reasonable and supportable in the context of the appraisal, and not conflict with the “Extraordinary Assumptions or Hypothetical Conditions.”
It is important to review the appraisal section, “Extraordinary Assumptions and Hypothetical Conditions”. This means the appraiser has taken some action or used a method that departs from USPAP standards. The appraiser may have made assumptions that could render the appraisal of little or no value by following outside standards. You may find this when the property is zoned incorrectly for the neighborhood or the property’s intended use, or when comparable are extremely difficult to locate. Some examples of extraordinary assumptions may be: whether all entitlements are complete for a construction project, there is adequate absorption for lease up, that the building conforms to zoning and usage ordinances, that the property construction will be completed timely and on budget, and that there are no environmental concerns. The appraiser may need to invoke certain hypothetical conditions under some directives by the client.
Extraordinary Assumptions are specific assumptions made and utilized in the development of the estimate of value and which, if found to be false, could alter the resulting opinion or conclusion. Hypothetical Conditions are assumptions made which are known to be contrary to fact, but which are assumed for discussion, analysis or formulation of opinions.
As a final comment, it is important that you read the entire appraisal. There are issues such as the amount of area vacancy, the applicable capitalization rate, and a discussion regarding verification of zoning or permits that you may want to personally verify. These are not always clear in the first reading. For example, the area vacancy and the application of a capitalization approach may be different in Riverside, CA. than in Newport Beach, CA.
- Documentation/ Legal Counsel
I have combined these two together for this reason, some lenders farm out their legal documentation preparation to a third party. Since it is the lender who is responsible for state and federally required documentation, a third party legal counsel or knowledgeable consultant is advised.
Commercial lending is sometimes characterized by loaning to entities such as trusts, corporations, limited partnerships, and limited liability companies. There is a required technical understanding of the laws relating to these entity types, and the documentation differences that each will require. There is another matter of the issue of lien priority. Documentation complexity can be compounded when the issues of lien priority and tenancy are added to the mix. Your borrower may own a property in a family limited partnership, occupy the same property as an operating business which is a corporation, and have other unrelated tenants, who may also own their businesses in different forms of entities.
- Escrow Companies
All escrow officers are not alike. A competent, experienced, and highly technical escrow officer is a must. Escrow acts as an intermediary and dual agent, between the principal parties to ensure that instructions and agreements are carried out correctly. The lender’s final closing instructions to the escrow officer should summarize all the conditions that have been met and under what conditions he/she may close the transaction, using the correct title insurance policy and endorsements in place at the recording to ensure lien priority.
- Commercial Real Estate Broker(s)
In metropolitan areas, finding a real estate professional who has the background, knowledge and experience of the product type and geographic area is a matter a good referral or inquiry. If the subject property is in a sub market or a rural market, the time should be taken to locate a broker on the front end while the loan transaction is being processed. Brokers in these areas tend to be generalists who list and sell whatever kind of real estate is available. Your job is to locate that one broker who has the specialized skills you may need.
- Environmental Engineer
As a lender you have the option of a quick public records search to identify any properties around the subject that may have used contaminants which could affect the property or that would call attention to the need for further inquiry. An example, a data base in California is the State Water Resource Control Board is known as a “Geotracker”. The lender also has an option for a limited phase I, or full phase I to determine whether the property contains or has ever contained identifiable contaminants. The environmental engineer will report that information and will comment on how it may affect the desirability and salability of the property. For properties built before 1978 the issue of asbestos arises. Also lead based paints were commonly used in construction before 1978. Today, the common approach is to do nothing about asbestos or lead based paint if it appears that they are contained or sealed. Adverse findings by the environmental engineer may lead to the need for soils borings, a phase II, or a phase III. Some properties are purchased with the knowledge there is known environmental issues, and that the purpose of the loan may be for mitigation.
- Credit report and credit reporting agency
Very little needs to be said about credit reporting agencies. They all use the same data bases to accumulate the historical credit background of a borrower. However, Real Estate Brokers who make or arrange loan transactions in California are subject to 10232.5 of the Business and Professions Code which consists of a summary of disclosures and requirements to investors who may purchase a portion or all the trust deed investment. Section 10232.5 subsection (4) states that the Real Estate Broker must provide the “identity, occupation, employment, income, and credit data about the prospective borrower or borrowers as represented to the broker by the prospective borrower or borrowers”. This is easy to comply with when the borrower is either an individual or a seasoned entity with years of financials, history, and credit. A standard credit report should provide all the information you need. However, loaning to an entity newly formed for the sole purpose of purchasing or holding a property creates an additional question. Do you need to run a credit report on the entity knowing that nothing will show up? The answer is “yes”, and as an abundance of caution, you should also run a credit report on the individuals who created the entity.
- Property Inspection/Property Condition Assessment
Some lenders will require a property inspection by a third party who is trained in that field. The Property Condition Report (PCR) is used by purchasers and lenders who take property back in foreclosure, as part of the assessment of value for resale and limiting liability on resale. These reports tend to be very detailed and may require several specialists to evaluate the various components of the property, both real and personal. The process can be expensive costing from $20,000 to $100,000. This form of third party assessment is rarely used in private money loan transactions because of the nature and purpose of the loan request. Limited condition assessments may be available for much less expense.
There are many risks associated with commercial real estate lending, many of which will be written about in subsequent articles. None, however, quite rise to the level of the need to use highly competent and highly skilled third-party vendors. You are the one who has the option to search and hire the most professional vendors. You, your company, and of course your investors, will also be stuck with the results if substandard vendors are used.